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Technique --> The forearms are colonels:

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FOREARM:

The elbow joint  is a hinge joint ( like the hinge of the door). It allows flexion and  extension (bending and un-bending).

Forearm can rotate the palm up and down: there are two bones in the forearm -- the radius and the ulna, the radius can rotate around the ulna. The ulna can not rotate. (The Pianist)

THE USE OF THE FOREARM:

(1) Alternation Action: While the forearm goes up, the hand goes down and when the forearm goes down the hand goes up.  It is a automatic coordination if the control is from the shoulder joint. It facilitates speed. It is constantly used in playing chords, thirds, sixths  and octaves.

(2) Rotary Action: Rotary action is well known as an incomparable asset in playing. Its combination with the above alternation action makes the technique of the forearm a powerful facility for virtuoso playing. Forearm rotation is constantly used in playing scales and arpeggios.

(3)  Act as a fulcrum (the support, or point of rest, on which a lever turns) for the  hand and wrist.  letting the wrist turn and the hand up and down so that the hand will feel supple like a leaf of a stem.  - for example, playing broken chords and arpeggios. When acting as fulcrum of the hand and wrist, the forearm is steady and passive but remain alert.

(4) Forearm maintains at  the level of the keyboard, except when it turns by the upper arm.

(5) Passing: (Gyorgy SandorAbby Whiteside)

Virtuosity demands that the technique of passing the hand along the keyboard be a blended activity involving every possibility from shoulder to fingers.

A quick flexion or extension of forearm plus rotary action, plus the constant easy adjustment at the shoulder, can put the hand in successive playing positions along the keyboard. The thumb and finger actions become simply an extension of the upper arm and forearm actions -- a follow through. A quick small movement at the elbow can fling the hand in such manner that it will cover distance -- horizontal, vertical and in-and-out - expertly.

Fatal mistake in traditional teaching: Thumb passes under the the palm and reaches for position; and fingers trying to reach over the thumb and seeking a legato key connection. They have to be re-educated physically to a new pattern of coordination. Taking away thumb and fingers and legato key connection. Passing the thumb under the palm is only used in slow tempo  legato playing. I should be used scarcely.

 

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